This report was prepared under the overall direction of Cai Cai, Chief, Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Section, Social Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

The report was drafted and prepared by Anita Gurumurthy, Executive Director, IT for Change, with the assistance of Nandini Chami, Senior Research Associate, IT for Change. National consultants for the country studies were Jan McConchie (Australia), Susanna Kelly and Roshika Deo (Republic of Fiji), Maria Macapagal and Mina Peralta (Philippines), and Jung-soo Kim (Republic of Korea).

Key substantive input and support was provided by Sayuri Cocco Okada. In addition, Matthew Perkins, Michael Riggs, Diana Rodriguez and Robert de Jesus gave insightful feedback and comments on drafts of the report. We also acknowledge the important contributions and insights from the United Nations Project Office on Governance, in particular from the Head of Office, Jae-hong Lim, and of the Division for Public Administration and Development Management, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, especially Vincenzo Aquaro and Adriana Alberti.

The graphic design and layout were developed by Daniel Feary.

This report was made possible with the generous funding of the Korean-ESCAP Cooperation Funds.



This report has been issued without formal editing. It follows United Nations practices in references to countries. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.

Reproduction and dissemination of material in this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder, provided that the source is fully acknowledged.

The opinions and estimates set forth in this publication are the responsibility of the authors and should not necessarily be considered as reflecting the views of carrying the endorsement of the United Nations.

For further information on this report, please contact:

Social Development Division
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
United Nations Building
Rajadamnern Nok Avenue
Bangkok 10200, Thailand
Tel: (66–2) 288–1513
Fax: (66–2) 288–1030

May 2016